An Applied Research is a methodology used to solve practicalproblems of a group or an individual. The applied research covers awide sample of subjects which are all addressing problems. An example of ex post facto research? Ex post facto research is also known as casual-comparativeresearch. An example would be researching a troublesomeintersection where many fatalities occur. As you were not witnessnor involved, you would extrapolate based on theory garnered fromcritical observation.
Example of a Body of a research paper? The body of a research paper is the largest part of the paper. Thebody is where you present your evidence in a way to persuadereaders to agree with your argument. It should be organized andpartitioned if long. What is the difference between positivist research and post positivist research? First I would like to refer this issue to epistemology and methodology , which the epistemology is the philosophy of knowledge or of how we come to know and the Methodology is also concerned with how we come to know, but is much more practical in nature.
In inference, I can put it in a short way that, the Positivist is the knowledge of realists to uncover the truth in a proved way and the Post-Positivist is the knowledge which is more concerned with critical realistic way. Can you give me an example of qualitative research?
Chapter I Introduction Reasoning is a part and parcel of being a human, so we always tend to use it, every now and then, to justify, to answer questions, to clarify thought and in rationalizing ideas that comes to mind, experiences and result of existence.
Thus it is a ways to satisfy our craving in seeking to what is the reality and specially the search for truth and wisdom, that we are trying to understand in this world. Reasoning is a great tool in knowing and exploring out the world and especially in finding our purpose and meaning of our existence and the tool in knowing the truth and identifying errors, half-truths and refuting them.
But let us not forget the limitations that the mind has. That there are things in this world that we could not really grasp or even imagine with our own capacity in thinking. Simply implying that human mind is finite and has its own limitation and capacity, there will come apart that we cannot completely comprehend with the use reason alone. There comes Obscurity and vagueness in our mind in what have been discovered, saw, explore and etc in this world. Even exhausting the resources of all human sciences, it cannot really grasp the totality of it, for no human science cannot be perfect and exact all the time in the realms of the nature of truth.
For there are things that our mind cannot really comprehend and beyond its capacity. Reasoning by the use of the heart is truly needed and a new way, in a sense that it is not commonly used than human sciences in reaching the infinite wisdom.
A wisdom or a knowledge so to speak, that is incomprehensible by the human level of reasoning. For sometimes believing is the best approach that you can do. But not it a sense of believing blindly; rather, not neglecting the use of mind. For the Heart is not only a mere intuition or expression of the human person that is opposing towards the logical reasoning of man. Certain objects only become given in the act of the heart. But they do not remain there in a rational intuition, but are accessible to intellectual and rational penetration.
It is in vain to understand everything with the use of reason alone. The maxim of Pascal of accepting the reality of the limitation of the mind and the use of the heart is an idea that is somewhat obscure to the understanding of people.
Specially people, who are exposed in the discovery of lot of the human sciences that is in our world. In this study the researcher aims in making a vivid exposition of what really is this heart and its uniqueness. Thus enabling us to see how these kind of reasoning be connected in the formation of the candidates for Priesthood. It to answer the following questions. Who is Blaise Pascal and what is his Philosophical thought?
What is the reasoning of the heart Pascal's Reason? What is the paradox between reason and Pascal's reason? What is the Seminary Formation 5. How can Pascal's reason can be link in the seminary formation? Significance of the Study This study aims at providing an idea of what really is the characteristic and differentiation of reason mind and heart's reason faith , in the primary view of Blaise Pascal way.
Using the heart as an other way in what should be known, consequently in searching the truth not only in the use of reason or the mind. But also by the heart to offer a ground in understanding its uniqueness and in discovering the truths, thus deriving to an idea to see its aid in search for the truth. Its specific relevance may be to the people who seeks for the reality and truth, that resolves to explore beyond the capacity of the natural level of the human reason.
To see the insufficiency of the pool of knowledge that we have, thus being reminded to search for another ways of find out the truth without neglecting or throwing up the ways. For they are formed not only with the use of mind and and other aspect of formation, but with the use of the heart.
Also to let them realized the limitations and shortcomings of the mind. Thus it is significant in the sense that it will help seminarians in their formation, not only in the intellectual aspect but in over-all. For they are not only depending with the use of mind, but also they listens to what our hearts trying to tell us.
Seminarians maybe guided in how to check the reality and in how to determine the limitations that our mind has. Formation is a lifelong process and not all the time mind in the best choice, therefore it signifies also not taking it for granted the heart. Scope and Delimitation Knowing the difference between the heart and the mind or the reason and faith through the reason that is presented by Blaise Pascal, and linking it towards the formation of the candidates for Priesthood or the Seminary Formation.
Seeing the connection of the heart's reason, rationalizing in the sense of using the natural level, and going to the next level of it, that is going beyond the natural level of knowledge with the aid of heart's reasoning. Reasoning and knowing its limitation, and linking it towards seminary formation.
Delimiting the study in the presentation of Blasie Pascal and limiting its concepts and ideas in connecting it towards the seminary formation. They could be the Priest, teachers, Bishops, and etc.. Heart - is conceived as the center of the human personality. The heart includes thoughts, feelings and will and represents the whole personality in its inmost being. It integrates every energy of a man in the service of a cause to which he owes allegiance. But if one believes and it turns out to be false then one has lost a little, if anything therefor unless the probability of God's existence is infinite.
Rational Knowledge - entails ideas, facts and knowledge that comes to the natural level of thinking, that reason alone could suffice and could grasp. Making some inferences and discovering and knowing something in the level that is not beyond the capacity of the human mind. Reason - is a discursive thought of the mind naturally that connects ideas consciously, coherently and purposively. Seminary Formation - A structure that is purposely created by the Church for the sole aim of forming young men towards priesthood, Supra-Rational Knowledge - it is beyond the natural level that reason could not fully grasp, but with the use of the reasoning of the heart, it is a knowledge that is not only rooted in the rational level and thus exceeds toward the another realms of the knowledge that is beyond the physical aspect and beyond the capacity of the mind.
In this study it is technically used as a Priestly call, and a call towards a venture in the seminary formation gong to Priesthood. Wager - it is used by Blaise Pascal in his famous exposition, to see whether God exist or not, hence it is a person that is a gambler who will risk to bet on; whether in Choosing God is or not and without the use of the reason.
Where it is the Primary person who represents the idea of Pascal in proving God's existence. Methodology The Library Method research was used in this study. The Library method of research is a fact finding study that focuses in garnering interpretations and finding through the books and other reading materials. It describes what is, the study all about.
It describes with emphasis in what actually the mind and norms of certain person and institution through the books, with emphasis through their writings, such as rules, exposition and concepts. Since the study or investigation was concerned in knowing Pascal's reason and linking it in the context of Seminary Formation. Library method was the most suitable method to be use in this study. Biography Blaise Pascal French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. A mathematical prodigy, Pascal published his discoveries on the theory of conic sections at the age of sixteen.
He invented the first practicable calculating machine, in , while his experimental and mathematical work on the barometer affords a model of midth-century science and methodology.
His celebrated correspondence with Pierre Fermat laid the basis of the modern theory of probability. Pascal's family were associated with the Jansenists of Port-Royal where his sister was a nun. After a profound religious experience in , Pascal turned to philosophy and theology. His Lettres provinciales are a defense of Arnalaud against his Jesuit opponents, but in spite of his efforts the two Port-Royal convents were closed in Both were published posthumously, and the latter, existing only in fragments, not given a definitive edition until Because of his prevailing scepticism, coupled, however, with a deep faith, Pascal has been compared to Kierkegaard as a leading example of religious conviction based on existential commitment and faith rather than on reason.
Like Berkley, Pascal had a deep concern for the poor, and founded the first ever public bus service, whose profit she gave to charity. Pascal's Wager, of course, depends on their only two choices - no god, or there is God.
So it manifest the choice of the bet of a wager whether to go with there is a God to get a great reward, if there is and looses a little or even nothing if God does not exist. Also to go with there is no God, and if the wager is wrong, he must suffer the consequence of hell and eternal punishment and condemnation. Pascal argues that the expected value of theistic belief is vastly greater that that of unbelief, since if one believes, and commits oneself to a life of faith in God etc..
But if one believes and it turns to be false then one has lost a little, if anything. Therefore unless the probability of God's existence is infinite, it is rational to adopt theistic belief. The key whether we believe in it or not is up to us, but it is somehow created and being consider as an example not as only a rationale for mere deception but as a reason for getting ourselves to believe genuinely.
Such classical example which is used by Pascal to profess his faith to God. Thus it is true that there is an infinite number, but we do not know what it is. It is untrue that it is even, untrue it is odd, for by adding a unit it does not change its nature. Yet it is number, and every number is even or odd.
Is there no substantial truth, seeing that there are so many things which are not truth itself? Thus we know the existence and nature of the finite because we too are finite and extended in space. We know the existence of the infinite without knowing its nature, because it too has extension but unlike us no limit.
But we do not know either the existence or the nature of God, because he has neither extension nor limits. But by faith we know his existence, through glory we shall know his nature. Thus, Pascal proves that the real existence of the infinite is possible. Such as there is a number that is infinite and as a consequence of being a eternal, we could not really grasp the infinite.
Thus we cannot really grasp the infinite by the use of our reason alone or rational knowledge is finite and limited in its sources and it is unbearable for the reason to grasp what he cannot really totally grasp. It is in vain for reason to do it alone, but by faith we could know the existence of the infinite. In the light of natural, if God exist, he is infinite and beyond our comprehension, thus we could not have or bear any relation to us, finite being.
Thus we could conclude that we are incapable of knowing the infinite. So we could not really grasp the nature and being of the infinite which is God, but by his aid and by the use of faith we could really know and can grasp the revelation that God has given, in order for us to grasp the reality and the true nature of the infinite which is God.
Giving the wager, a weighing up of the gain and the loss involve in God's existence. In the other context Pascal telling the wager, if you believed in God you can win a lot and that is eternal happiness if it is true and you bet correctly in the game.
But if it is not true and you lose in the game, that God exist, truly if God dos not exist you lose nothing. Pascal introduces this point by an appeal to reason to believe, which leads some critics to claim his argument here, like the rest of the wager, is based on reasonable belief.
They argue that since he begins with the assumption that the wager is valid and concludes that inability to believe is therefore irrational, the argument that one cannot consciously choose to believe still stands.
God exists and punishes or rewards according to one's belief, or a God does not exist is the choice to be made. Making the wager to choose and to bet in the reality of God, thus the use is reason is somehow a vague in tool in comprehending God, but it is by the heart. That is what faith is: God perceived by the heart, not by the reason. Where it represents the whole personality of man.
It integrates every energy of a man in the service of a cause to which he owes allegiance, reason cannot command our complete loyalty and thus ultimate things are known by the heart.
Therefore it is telling us that the heart has its own way of knowing that truth and its own way of reasoning. The reasoning of the heart is a tool in knowing the truth. As we know that reason alone cannot suffice the vast scope of truth and the wisdom. Calling it the structure of aesthetic and communal experience beauty and Love ; where reason could not really grasp. Thus summing up to Pascal's distinction between Rational and Supra-Rational knowledge.
That will lead to the truth the man ever seek. Rational knowledge entails ideas, facts and knowledge that comes to the natural level of thinking, that reason alone could suffice and could grasp.
The Supra-Rational Knowledge that is beyond the natural level that reason could not fully grasp, but with the use of the reasoning of the heart it could. By the use of faith the supra-rational knowledge can be attain guided by the use of the reasoning of man. For it entails the knowledge that is beyond the natural level that reason cannot suffice in answering and rationalizing the mysteries that is there.
Not following the heart blindly, blinded faith, but first and fur most is the recognition of the value of rational evidences , thus trying to gather some ideas, evidences that could help the initiation of the faith. Secondly is admitting the insufficiency of man, leading to the reconciliation to God, as the source of wisdom and faith.
For in sufficiency of man's mind can open up humility and faith towards something that they could not really understand and ask the heart to reason out in order to see what is the real rationale to a thing, finding solution with the use of Faith and Reason. For thus it implies that we move around an object and secondly we enter into it, according to Bergson.
That is what faith is. God felt by the heart and not by reason alone. Commonly we perceive the heart only as the organ that pumps and manipulates the circulation of the blood, specially in the science and physiology. But more than that we also know that the heart is the center of the personality of the person.
It is where our overall characteristic is categorized. When we are talking of the heart, we can easily perceive it as the centrality of the body, person, and being. When we are asked where is the center of our body we could easily perceive and answer the heart.
Regards of this the heart has perceive having its own way of rationalizing the ideas that is perceived in the way that human beings can. Especially in the matters that the reason of the mind cannot truly have and proper insight or having an ambiguous thought about something. Such as the proving of God's existence that the mind cannot really grasp because it is beyond its capacity, for it is infinite.
The heart even though it is not infinite, it has a tool in making a decision or presumption, it is based in the use of the faith, not only a mere blinded faith but a faith that withheld the use of reason. It is typical understanding of man about reasoning is with the use of mind. Thus it is a function of the brain to reason out with the use of the mind. Reasoning is a discursive thought of the mind naturally that connects ideas consciously, coherently and purposively.
Thus by reasoning we can attain truths based in the ideas and evidences upon our hands. It is by the use of sciences and scientific approaches, where evidences, thoughts, concepts and ideas are grasp through the use of our natural gift of knowing through the mind.
Rationalizing with the use of mind and reasoning with the aid given by the rational knowledge. In the discourse of Sir. Reasoning by the use of mind is not all the time enough in order to seek and know the truth and in the pursue of wisdom. For the knowledge of man is not perfect and obscurity occurs in it, so errors and mistake are inevitable actions of man's reasoning with the use of mind. He tries to tell us that we must not forget the use of the reasoning of the mind.
Realizing the relationship of man to God is the basis of genuine knowledge. Thus seeing the futility of mere intellectual proofs for the existence of God. Knowing that God exist is by the feeling the heart. Thus it is not a mere faith that is blind in the sense of believing without any attempts or action of using the reasoning of the mind or the rational knowledge, but a faith guided by the light of reason going towards the truth that is unattainable by reason alone, for reason alone cannot suffice the vast scope of the ocean of truth.
We can all say that heart and mind are important part of man's way in attaining and searching for the truth and a way of rationalizing. Mind is used commonly by people in the whole wide world to see and to attain facts and some truth by perceiving the things in it.
A knowledge that is attainable with the use of reason alone that is not beyond the natural realms of the mind. The heart is the other way of finding the truth and ideas, but not in the use of natural sense at all but by the use of the faith, not driven by a blind sight to believe, but a heart guided by reason; a faith driven by reason. We can find connection about these two by first accepting that there is beyond the capacity of the human reason, that reason alone cannot attain the reality of this world and cannot fathom the wholeness of it.
Secondly Faith is needed to go beyond the capacity of human reason, but not neglecting the reason but using it as a stepping stone to help attain the part of the infinite. Thus working together in order to attain the aimed truths and ideas that is not limited in the realms of the nature of man's mind. It became compulsory for every diocese to erect a seminary for the purpose of educating the local clergy. Young men were prepared for priesthood.
In its original design, the Tridentine seminary legislation was influenced by three factors. First, petitions coming from Italy, France, and the Holy Roman Empire had highlighted abuses in the education of the clergy, and had proposed either the reformation of cathedral schools or the erection of special schools attached to cathedral churches.
Second, the Society of Jesus insisted on the necessity of providing adequate means for clerical education, and had already pursued this aim in founding and running college Seminary Formation, including the famous Germanicum, founded in Rome by the Jesuit Claude Le Jay in Pole's solution was to cure the carelessness of the clergy by erecting seminaries at every cathedral church.
This directly inspired the fathers of the council in their writing of the Tridentine decree. A structure that is purposely created by the Church for the sole aim of forming young men towards priesthood, that is Seminary Formation.
This is what profoundly differentiates the seminary from any other educational institutions: A seminary therefore is a house of prayer, a house of study, a house of Discipline and a house of service; wherein young lads are trained to be Good and Holy Priest in the future.
The Four houses mentioned are based in the structure of the seminary formation at the Saint Francis Xavier College Seminary. House of Prayer- Spiritual Formation Spiritual formation of a candidate for being a priest, is an important part of his formation. It is where they are formed to have a relationship towards God ad a bearer of Him. Where it is a holy place where the community assembles in praising and listening to the voice of God.
A necessary training in prayer is needed by every seminarian, also learning the faith heartily, such as the CCC, the Catechism of the Catholic Church, the bible, the liturgy, the sacraments and other teachings of the Church.
Increasing faith and knowing God deeply than before in order to give Christ to others in the Future. These are occasions of the candidate to discern and personally converse with God, not Physically but with the use of the heart.
God felt by the heart, not by reason. For this will be one of his tools in spreading the Good news and a tool in making people understand the messages that God has revealed to the Church and to his people.
For the purpose of being trained to be critical minded persons in order to grow with the truth. Every seminarian is expected to develop and refine his intellectual ability and acquire those dispositions and habits which will make him an intellectually mature person.
To attain correct understanding towards things and to be logical in spreading the Good News. Intellectual Formation is really an important part of a candidate for priesthood to form them, for it gives seminarians the logical path in knowing what is the truth and in order to follow God and the Church not only by mere faith, but a heart guided by the mind.
A faith Guided by reason. For if candidates cannot clarify in himself the things needed to be clarify in the formation, especially in the aspect of intellectual formation, how could he spread the good news with clarity and how could he encourage the faithful to follow the faith is he himself cannot explain or clarify the faith for the purpose of his understanding, thus intellectual formation is a relevant part of the seminary formation. Respect, justice, understanding and compassion characterize his relationship as grown in affective maturity.
Philippine Program if Priestly Formation, , no. Thus human aspect of a candidate of being a Priest, is an important part of his formation. Making him a human, cultured and refined individual that is suited for this future ministry as a bearer of Christ message of salvation.
There should be human maturity attained, for the candidates to stand and to respect well the ministry of Christ, to the faithful. To be a discipline person following Christ as his disciple. Thibault PME, , rule of life; , Being models in Christ humanity which also signifies being a good, holy persons. That is inclined towards the teachings of the Church. Being a spiritual leader someday, discipline is a tool to manifest sincerity and maturity in order for the flock to follow you, you must be also be a good example to them.
The seminary is not just a mere school that is exclusive for boys and aims only for educational purposes but is it a place for priestly formation. For everything that the candidate that have learned in his seminary formation, his trainings, intellectual formation, spiritual formation discipline, could be seen and acted upon their action towards service others.
Thus these aspect of formation is like a manifestation of what seminarians have learned in his formation. Pastoral is tantamount of the summit of the seminary formation, thus it is given an emphasis to see and experience to be exposed in the field, but it is only a foretaste of the task waiting for the seminarian when he become a Priest.
As it is emphasize in the Philippine Program for Priestly Formation nos. In order for him to grow specially a heart to serve his fellow, as what he will be doing in the future when he become a Priest. The Formators are the persons, who will guide and form the candidates. They are the sensible persons to help seminarians to attain their goal. The Holy Spirit, who will help the candidate to discern and transforming him gradually according to His will and making him Alter Christus in the end.
Pastores Davo Vobis no. The Seminary Formation is an all in one formation and transformation of a candidate for Priesthood. Not only being formed intellectually, in order to defend and give the reasons about the belief which we hold.
Not lonely being formed to have a discipline, for the people to follow and be a model like Christ. Not only being trained to be in service with the people and specially not only being trained to pray and communicate with God and having the power and opportunity and gift in turning bread and wine into the body of blood of Christ. But it is instituted by the Church to have a well-rounded personality person, having an intellectual capacity, disciplined, a servant-leader and specially a person committed to God.
A person having these formation induced into one to be an effective minister. Having a heart resonated with the mind, a faith that is aided by reason, in order to have an equilibrium in seeing the truth and spreading the good news of God. It is asked for an explanation and clarification about this kind of reasoning. Enabling to explain the vivid identity and definition of the heart's reason and of the mind.
Seeing their capacities, their limitation and advantages, furthermore making a link towards the context of seminary formation. Blaise Pascal, a famous Philosopher and a mathematician, realized the necessity in understanding the heart and its way of reasoning. This regards the method of seeing no reason at all that can sustain and faith is the only way to know.
It enterprises and exposes that human reasoning is limited and that we cannot really grasp the infinite with the use of reason in the natural level alone. Such as in proving God's existence with the use of heart's reason. The reasoning of the heart is a way towards the truth. Heart is the center of once person, that represents the whole personality of man. Perceiving and rationalizing in an unique way, that something or all the time the reason cannot understand.
Even though the heart is not an infinite being, but it could closely be near to the truth, basing its rationale not only in the natural level of reason, but through faith. A heart that is faithful, holding its reason beyond reason.
The heart can set man to contemplation to deepen its understanding and judge vividly the truth and see things clearly by the use of the heart.
Mind and heart in the tool of reasoning are commonly perceived paradoxical. In the sense that reasoning cannot understand the heart's way of reasoning.
Ex post facto study or after-the-fact research is a category of research design in which the investigation starts after the fact has occurred without interference from the researcher. The majority of social research, in contexts in which it is not possible or acceptable to manipulate the characteristics of human participants, is based on ex post facto .
Ex post facto design is a quasi-experimental study examining how an independent variable, present prior to the study in the participants, affects a dependent variable. A quasi-experimental study simply means participants are not randomly assigned.
Ex-post facto research is systematic empirical inquiry in which the scientist does not have direct control of independent variables because their manifestations have already occurred or because they are inherently not manipulated. Ex post facto research is ideal for conducting social research when is not possible or acceptable to manipulate the characteristics of human .
Ex post facto research When translated literally, ex post facto means ‘from what is done afterwards’. In the context of social and educational research the phrase means ‘after the fact’ or. Designing Research: Ex Post Facto Designs MAUREEN GIUFFRE, PhD, RN The research design is the overall plan or structure of the study. The goal.