Events of the period preceding the rebellion depicted a need for big political changes. In , Governor Bowdoin lost elections to John Hancock, whom he had defeated in all previous contentions. The people were determined to get rid of every element of oppressive governance.
He held official capacity in Lancaster and employed all possible resources, with the sole objective of monitoring how people related to the rebellion and stopping growth of the militia group. Soon, they would start pursuing the agenda of delivering a federal government system to the American people. America experienced a recession beginning in The government could not survive without extensive external funding let alone subsidizing public projects. They found that salvation could be achieved by demanding a tax increase.
According to smith 6 , the taxation levels were not ethical. The government tried to exploit farmers and casual laborers, however; their efforts did not make much difference as such persons initially made less money than tax demands. Therefore; the taxman made demands but did not receive equitable monies. Consequently, persons who failed to comply lost property and others were prosecuted in court. Government also owed to soldier. A currency circulation mess, where circulation did not match national wealth was not corrected by government.
This led to further escalation of the already unpleasant situation. Crops did very well; farmers brought much harvest from the farms but attracted low market prices. Most farmers did not meet their tax obligations and soon lost rights to continue farming on their land.
The labor industry was also in a chaotic situation. Few jobs were available for grab. Essentially, the court rules, or adjudicates, on the previous rulings challenged for their constitutionality. Hence, the Supreme Court is the final court of appeal in the US from inferior federal courts or from state courts in case the constitutional issue is involved The right to speak freely was received on December 15, The right to speak freely is secured by the main correction in the Constitution of United States, which is the The organization constitution of malaysian is considered as the uncommon law in malaysia.
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Shays was a farmhand from Massachusetts at the beginning of the Revolutionary War; he joined the Continental Army, saw action at the Battles of Lexington and Concord , Battle of Bunker Hill , and Battles of Saratoga , and was eventually wounded in action. In , Shays' rebels marched on the United States' Armory at Springfield in an unsuccessful attempt to seize its weaponry and overthrow the government.
The federal government found itself unable to finance troops to put down the rebellion, and it was consequently put down by the Massachusetts State militia and a privately funded local militia. The widely held view was that the Articles of Confederation needed to be reformed as the country's governing document, and the events of the rebellion served as a catalyst for the Constitutional Convention and the creation of the new government.
The shock of Shays' Rebellion drew retired General George Washington back into public life, leading to his two terms as the United States' first President. The economy during the American Revolutionary War was largely subsistence agriculture in the rural parts of New England , particularly in the hill towns of central and western Massachusetts. Some residents in these areas had few assets beyond their land, and they bartered with one another for goods and services. In lean times, farmers might obtain goods on credit from suppliers in local market towns who would be paid when times were better.
When the Revolutionary War ended in , the European business partners of Massachusetts merchants refused to extend lines of credit to them and insisted that they pay for goods with hard currency, despite the continent-wide shortage of such currency. Merchants began to demand the same from their local business partners, including those operating in the market towns in the state's interior. This led to strong resentments against tax collectors and the courts, where creditors obtained judgments against debtors, and where tax collectors obtained judgments authorizing property seizures.
I have been greatly abused, have been obliged to do more than my part in the war, been loaded with class rates, town rates, province rates, Continental rates and all rates… been pulled and hauled by sheriffs, constables and collectors, and had my cattle sold for less than they were worth…. The great men are going to get all we have and I think it is time for us to rise and put a stop to it, and have no more courts, nor sheriffs, nor collectors nor lawyers.
Veterans had received little pay during the war and faced added difficulty collecting pay owed them from the State or the Congress of the Confederation ,  and some soldiers began to organize protests against these oppressive economic conditions. In , Daniel Shays resigned from the army unpaid and went home to find himself in court for non-payment of debts. He soon realized that he was not alone in his inability to pay his debts and began organizing for debt relief.
One early protest against the government was led by Job Shattuck of Groton, Massachusetts in , who organized residents to physically prevent tax collectors from doing their work. Governor Hancock ordered the sheriff to suppress these actions.
Most rural communities attempted to use the legislative process to gain relief. Petitions and proposals were repeatedly submitted to the state legislature to issue paper currency, which would depreciate the currency and make it possible to pay a high-value debt with lower-valued paper. The merchants were opposed to the idea, including James Bowdoin , since they stood to lose from such measures, and the proposals were repeatedly rejected. Governor Hancock resigned in early citing health reasons, though some suggested that he was anticipating trouble.
He stepped up civil actions to collect back taxes, and the legislature exacerbated the situation by levying an additional property tax to raise funds for the state's portion of foreign debt payments. Protests in rural Massachusetts turned into direct action in August after the state legislature adjourned without considering the many petitions that had been sent to Boston.
They called themselves Regulators , a reference to the Regulator movement of North Carolina which sought to reform corrupt practices in the late s. Governor Bowdoin issued a proclamation on September 2 denouncing such mob action, but he took no military measures beyond planning a militia response to future actions. Daniel Shays had participated in the Northampton action and began to take a more active role in the uprising in November, though he firmly denied that he was one of its leaders.
The Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts indicted 11 leaders of the rebellion as "disorderly, riotous, and seditious persons". Shays and Day were able to recruit a similar number but chose only to demonstrate, exercising their troops outside of Shepard's lines rather than attempting to seize the building. Shepard withdrew his force which had grown to some men to the Springfield Armory , which was rumored to be the target of the protestors.
Protests were also successful in shutting down courts in Great Barrington , Concord , and Taunton, Massachusetts in September and October. Samuel Adams claimed that foreigners "British emissaries" were instigating treason among the commoners, and he helped draw up a Riot Act and a resolution suspending habeas corpus in order to permit the authorities to keep people in jail without trial.
Adams proposed a new legal distinction that rebellion in a republic should be punished by execution. Warrants were issued for the arrest of several of the protest ringleaders, and a posse of some men rode to Groton on November 28 to arrest Job Shattuck and other rebel leaders in the area. Shattuck was chased down and arrested on the 30th and was wounded by a sword slash in the process.
The federal government had been unable to recruit soldiers for the army because of a lack of funding, so Massachusetts leaders determined to act independently. On January 4, , Governor Bowdoin proposed creating a privately funded militia army. While the government forces assembled, Shays and Day and other rebel leaders in the west organized their forces establishing regional regimental organizations that were run by democratically elected committees. Their first major target was the federal armory in Springfield.
He had done this despite the fact that the armory was federal property, not state, and he did not have permission from Secretary at War Henry Knox. The insurgents were organized into three major groups and intended to surround and attack the armory simultaneously. Shepard first ordered warning shots fired over the heads of Shays' men, and then he ordered two cannons to fire grape shot.
Four Shaysites were killed and 20 wounded. There was no musket fire from either side, and the rebel advance collapsed. General Lincoln immediately began marching west from Worcester with the 3, men that had been mustered. The rebels moved generally north and east to avoid him, eventually establishing a camp at Petersham, Massachusetts.
They raided the shops of local merchants for supplies along the way and took some of the merchants hostage. They surprised the rebel camp so thoroughly that the rebels scattered "without time to call in their out parties or even their guards". Most of the leadership escaped north into New Hampshire and Vermont, where they were sheltered despite repeated demands that they be returned to Massachusetts for trial.
Lincoln's march marked the end of large-scale organized resistance. Ringleaders who eluded capture fled to neighboring states, and pockets of local resistance continued.
Some rebel leaders approached Lord Dorchester for assistance, the British governor of the Province of Quebec who reportedly promised assistance in the form of Mohawk warriors led by Joseph Brant. The bills also authorized state payments to reimburse Lincoln and the merchants who had funded the army, and authorized the recruitment of additional militia.
This bill forbade any acknowledged rebels from holding a variety of elected and appointed offices. Most of Lincoln's army melted away in late February as enlistments expired, and he commanded only 30 men at a base in Pittsfield by the end of the month.
They raided the shops of merchants and the homes of merchants and local professionals. This came to the attention of Brigadier John Ashley, who mustered a force of some 80 men and caught up with the rebels in nearby Sheffield late in the day for the bloodiest encounter of the rebellion:
Shays' Rebellion in and the Whiskey Rebellion in are examples of two brutal rebellions that led to the deaths of many innocent people. Rebellions can develop due .
Shay’s Rebellion was the revolt of Western Massachusetts farmers against their state legislature because they felt they were being unequally represented. The intention of this paper is to analyze the problems that led to Shays’ Rebellion and to describe the casual relationship it had with the ratification of the U. S. Constitution.
"Shays Rebellion" Essays and Research Papers Shays Rebellion Shay’s Rebellion was the revolt of Western Massachusetts farmers against their state legislature because they felt they were being unequally represented. This bankruptcy led to the loss of land and a great rebellion led by Daniel Shays. The Shay's rebellion was ended easily enough but it was the lack of national government that frightened people/5(2).
- SHAYS’S REBELLION AND THE U.S. CONSTITUTION Introduction Although not widely known, Shays’s Rebellion greatly impacted the debate on sovereignty and led many to conclude that the only possible solution was the centralization of . Themes & Essays. The Themes below provide a way of understanding each historic scene within the context of four different humanities themes. Select a scene (listed across the top of the screen) and move down the column to the theme you are interested in. Click the theme essay title to read the short essay; click a scene title to go to that scene.